In reality, audiences are made of human beings and human beings are different. Short, Jr. DeFleur M. Wolfgang Eds. During a period of an extreme social change, such as elections.
For example, sending a message in a foreign language that is 9 not understood by the receiver probably will result in decoding failure. Such a position can be painful to articulate because it can force a choice between mutually incompatible goals and the means for obtaining them.
The more salient the information needs, the stronger are the motivation to seek mediated information and the dependency on the medium.
The second effect is agenda-setting. When there is high ambiguity, stress is created, and audiences are more likely to turn to mass media to resolve ambiguity. Sociometry,